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中文標題: 國中小校舍結構耐震能力初步評估之統計分析及現地驗證
英文標題: Analysis of Result of Preliminary Seismic Evaluation Method on In-Situ Test of School Buildings
編號: NCREE-11-033
語言: 中文
編輯:
媒體型式: 紙本
作者:
鍾立來   吳賴雲   林琨偉   楊耀昇   連冠華   蘇耕立   黃世建   
中文摘要: 台灣既有校舍結構普遍耐震能力不足,惟其數量龐大,必須經由全面
篩選之程序以縮小範圍,由弱至強依序補強,以降低震害。
初步評估法乃篩選程序之一,具簡單、客觀之特性。初評方法須調查
校舍座落之震區、校舍之用途、結構之現況、結構之尺寸及一樓垂直構件
之斷面尺寸,據而算得其結構耐震之容量及需求,予以評分。本文自國震
中心校舍資料庫彙整相關資料,經統計分析,47.3%之校舍確有耐震疑慮,
18.3%略有疑慮,34.4%暫無耐震疑慮。典型校舍沿走廊方向牆量甚少,弱
軸分明;而非典型校舍之牆量在兩方向之配置較均勻,弱軸不明顯,故非
典型校舍之平均耐震性能指標為典型校舍之1.5 倍。一層樓校舍之平均耐震
指標最高,而三、四層樓校舍最低。以上統計結果可供教育部施政決策及
經費配置,其對震災來臨時,減少生命財產損失。
惟結構耐震評估法相當多元,初步評估雖快速、經濟,但其實用性仍
有待商榷。國震中心從2005 年至2007 年進行了四所學校之大型實體結構
物現地試驗,包含花蓮新城國中、雲林口湖國小、桃園瑞埔國小、台南關
廟國小等。本文彙整相關數據,四棟校舍之現地試驗之載重皆為單向側推,
而地震之本質乃反復施載。在瑞埔國小之現地試驗中,針對同一棟校舍之
兩個試驗單元,分別執行單向側推試驗及反復載重試驗,比較兩者之容量
曲線,反復載重之最大基底剪力將為單向側推之97%;達最大基底剪力後,
反復載重之屋頂位移的增幅,為單向側推之50%。本研究以實算方式驗證
初步評估各項假設,其結果大部分均為保守。初評法之耐震指標約為實算
現地試驗33%至90%。
本文採用上述現地試驗與詳細評估之分析資料,轉化為基本耐震性能
與初步評估之結果做比較,驗證保守度依序為初步評估法、詳細評估法、
現地試驗,故初步評估法可為一迅速有效篩選校舍耐震能力之方法。
英文摘要: School buildings in Taiwan are insufficient for earthquake resistance ability, because there are too many buildings in school, we must sift all the buildings out comprehensively to narrow the range. We decrease earthquake disasters by mending from week to health. Preliminary seismic evaluation method is one of procedure to sift school buildings out, and it is simple and objective. The method must investigate many properties and situations, including its’ locations, purposes, conditions, and sizes. Based on the data we can calculate the structure capacity and demand, then give them a grade. This paper compiles statistic and analysis the data from NCREE school building data bank. There are 47.3% truly anxiety, 18.3% slightly anxiety, and 34.4% is safe. the typical buildings is week then untypical one. Because the typical buildings have rare walls along the hallway becoming a week axis, the untypical buildings have bidirectional walls, so the untypical buiding capacity is better then typical one. The CDR(capacity demand ratio) of untypical building is usually 1.5 times CDR of typical one. One floor school buildings’ average is highest of seismic index, three and four floors school buildings are lowest. The results are Ministry of Education policy decisions and funding allocation. When earthquake comes, reduce losing of lifes. NCREE preceded a series of in-situ pushover experiment for school buildings. From 2005 to 2007, several school field tests include Sin-Chen junior high school, Kou-Hu elementary school, Rei-pu elementary school, Guan-Miau elementary school performed by NCREE. A method of seismic evaluation for existing buildings needs to be confirmed. This article based on CDR to find the seismic index for comparing three cases including PE, ETABS, and pushover.
關鍵字: 校舍、耐震能力、初步評估、現地試驗
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